Leukoerythroblastosis in castration-resistant prostate cancer: A clue to diffuse bone marrow carcinomatosis

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Frank Sheng Fan *
Chung-Fan Yang
(*) Corresponding Author:
Frank Sheng Fan | fantast.fan@msa.hinet.net


A 66-year-old man with a previous history of advanced prostate cancer failing complete androgen blockade, docetaxel chemotherapy, denosumab, and abiraterone acetate as judged by persistent high serum levels of prostate specific antigen presented with exertional dyspnea, normocytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Leukoerythroblastosis was noted in his peripheral blood. Bone marrow examination disclosed diffuse bone marrow carcinomatosis from prostate cancer. Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and an extremely elevated serum level of D-dimer led to a diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Magnetic resonance imaging of spine revealed extensive bone marrow involvement but bone scan showed only scanty bony metastasis. We like to call attention to the importance of prompt bone marrow examination once recognizing leukoerythroblastosis in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Survey of a possible coexistent disseminated intravascular coagulation is as well strongly recommended in this condition.

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