Treatment of 817 patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: characteristics, predictive factors and outcome
AbstractThe aim of this study was to present the data of a large cohort of patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), who were treated in our department and give a current overview considering special clinical characteristics, performed therapy and different predictive factors for morbidity and mortality. We reviewed the data of all patients with spontaneous ICH, who were treated in our department in a time span of 11 years through an analysis of our prospective database. Patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH were included in the study. Patients with hemorrhage associated to vascular malformation or to cerebral ischemic stroke were excluded. The clinical performance at time of admission and discharge were scored using the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) respectively. The patients’ cohort was divided into surgically and conservatively treated groups. Statistical analysis [Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and ?²-test] was done for various parameters to analyze their impact on morbidity and mortality. In total, we analyzed the data of 817 patients (364 female and 453 male). Two hundred and sixty-nine patients (32%) were treated conservatively and 556 patients (68%) underwent surgical procedures, i.e. cerebrospinal fluid drainage in 110 (19.8%), craniotomy in 338 (60.7%) and application of both methods in 108 patients (19.4%). Total mortality rate was estimated with 23.5%. GCS<8, age over 70 years, intraventricular and basal ganglia hemorrhage, coumadin medication, combination of co-morbidities, hypertensive hemorrhage and postoperative re-bleeding were statistically significant risk factors for worse outcome (GOS 1 and 2) in the operated group. Similar to the observations of the operated group, GCS<8, age over 70 years and coumadin medication were statistically significant for worse outcome in the conservative group. In contrast, lobar plus basal ganglia ICH and multi-lobar hemorrhages were the most significant factors for worse outcome in the conservative group. The results of our study show that ICH remains a multifarious disease and challenges neurosurgeons repeatedly. Selection of the treatment modality and prediction for neurofunctional outcome underlies various parameters. Treatment recommendations of ICH remain an unsolved issue. The consideration of the GCS grade at admission is the most important predictive factor. Old age is not an absolute contraindication for surgery, but cumulative multi-morbidity, especially cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases and oral anticoagulant therapy should be regarded critically in view of surgical treatment.
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Copyright (c) 2012 Homajoun Maslehaty, Athanasios K. Petridis, Harald Barth, Alexandros Doukas, Hubertus Maximilian Mehdorn
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